Arias M, Jurado C, Gallardo C, Fernández-Pinero J, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. Gaps in African swine fever: Analysis and priorities. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Sep 22.  Download in PDF

Sánchez EG, Riera E, Nogal M, Gallardo C, Fernández P, Bello-Morales R, López-Guerrero JA, Chitko-McKown CG, Richt JA, Revilla Y. Phenotyping and susceptibility of established porcine cells lines to African Swine Fever Virus infection and viral production. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 4;7(1):10369.  Download in PDF


Sastre P, Gallardo C, Monedero A, Ruiz T, Arias M, Sanz A, Rueda P. Development of a novel lateral flow assay for detection of African swine fever in blood. BMC Vet Res. 2016 Sep 15;12:206. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0831-4. PubMed PMID: 27633968. Download in PDF

Giménez-Lirola LG, Mur L, Rivera B, Mogler M, Sun Y, Lizano S, Goodell C, Harris DL, Rowland RR, Gallardo C, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Zimmerman J. Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Antibodies in Serum and Oral Fluid Specimens Using a Recombinant Protein 30 (p30) Dual Matrix Indirect ELISA.PLoS One. 2016 Sep 9;11(9). Download in PDF

Sastre P, Pérez T, Costa S, Yang X, Räber A, Blome S, Goller KV, Gallardo C, Tapia I, García J, Sanz A, Rueda P. Development of a duplex lateral flow assay for simultaneous detection of antibodies against African and Classical swine fever viruses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016 Sep;28(5):543-9.Download in PDF

Achenbach JE, Gallardo C, Nieto-Pelegrín E, Rivera-Arroyo B, Degefa-Negi T, Arias M, Jenberie S, Mulisa DD, Gizaw D, Gelaye E, Chibssa TR, Belaye A, Loitsch A, Forsa M, Yami M, Diallo A, Soler A, Lamien CE, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. Identification of a New Genotype of African Swine Fever Virus in Domestic Pigs from Ethiopia. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016 May 22. Download in PDF

Oļševskis E, Guberti V, Seržants M, Westergaard J, Gallardo C, Rodze I, Depner K. African swine fever virus introduction into the EU in 2014: Experience of Latvia. Res Vet Sci. 2016 Apr;105:28-30.Download in PDF

Ma Carmen Gallardo, Ana de la Torre Reoyo, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, Irene Iglesias,, Ma Jesús Muñoz,and Ma Luisa Arias. African swine fever: a global view of the current challenge. Porcine Health Management (2015) 1:21 DOI 10.1186/s40813-015-0013-y



C Gallardo, A Soler, R Nieto, M A Sánchez, C Martins, V Pelayo, A Carrascosa, Y Revilla, A Simón, V Briones, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, M Arias. Experimental Transmission of African Swine Fever (ASF) Low Virulent Isolate NH/P68 by Surviving Pigs. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Dec;62(6):612-22Download in PDF

Gallardo C, Soler A, Nieto R, Cano C, Pelayo V, Sánchez MA, Pridotkas G, Fernandez-Pinero J, Briones V, Arias M. Experimental Infection of Domestic Pigs with African Swine Fever Virus Lithuania 2014 Genotype II Field Isolate. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Mar 22. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C, Nieto R, Soler A, Pelayo V, Fernández-Pinero J, Markowska-DanielI, Pridotkas G, Nurmoja I, Granta R, Simón A, Pérez C, Martín E, Fernández-Pacheco P, Arias M. ASSESSMENT OF AFRICAN SWINE FEVER DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AS A RESPONSE TO THE EPIDEMIC OUTBREAKS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES: HOW TO IMPROVE SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL PROGRAMMES. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Jun 3.Download in PDF.

Bishop RP, Fleischauer C, de Villiers EP, Okoth EA, Arias M, Gallardo C, Upton C. Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of Kenyan African swine fever virus isolates within p72 genotypes IX and X. Virus Genes. 2015 Feb 3. Download in PDF.


T. Randriamparany, K. V. Kouakou, V. Michaud, J. Fernandez-Pinero, C. Gallardo, M.-F. Le Potier, R. Rabenarivahiny, E. Couacy-Hymann, M. Raherimandimby and E. Albina. African Swine Fever Diagnosis Adapted to Tropical Conditions by the Use of Dried-blood Filter Papers.  Transbound Emerg Dis. 2014 Nov 27. Download in PDF.

Carmina Gallardo, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, Virginia Pelayo, Ismail Gazaev, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Gediminas Pridotkas, Raquel Nieto, Paloma Fernández-Pacheco, Svetlana Bokhan, Oleg Nevolko, Zhanna Drozhzhe, Covadonga Pérez, Alejandro Soler, Denis Kolvasov, and Marisa Arias. Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe. Emerging infectious Diseases. Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/9/14-0554_article


 Lina Mur, Carmina Gallardo, Alejandro Soler, Jeffrey Zimmermman, Virginia Pelayo, Raquel Nieto, Jose Manuel Sanchez-Vizcaino, Marisa Arias . Potential use of oral fluid samples for serological diagnosis of African swine fever. Veterinary Microbiology 165 (2013) 135–139. Download in pdf

Fernández-Pinero J, Gallardo C, Elizalde M, Robles A, Gómez C, Bishop R, Heath L, Couacy-Hymann E, Fasina FO, Pelayo V, Soler A, Arias M. Molecular diagnosis of African Swine Fever by a new real-time PCR using universal probe library. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013 Feb;60(1):48-58. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C,Soler A, Nieto R, Carrascosa AL, De Mia GM, Bishop RP, Martins C, Fasina FO, Couacy-Hymman E, Heath L, Pelayo V, Martín E, Simón A, Martín R, Okurut AR, Lekolol I, Okoth E, Arias M. Comparative evaluation of novel African swine fever virus (ASF) antibody detection techniques derived from specific ASF viral genotypes with the OIE internationally prescribed serological tests. Vet Microbiol. 2013 Feb 22;162(1):32-43. Download in PDF.


Argilaguet JM, Pérez-Martín E, Nofrarías M, Gallardo C, Accensi F, Lacasta A, Mora M, Ballester M, Galindo-Cardiel I, López-Soria S, Escribano JM, Reche PA, Rodríguez F. DNA vaccination partially protects against African swine fever virus lethal challenge in the absence of antibodies. PLoS One. 2012;7(9). Download in PDF.

Fasina FO, Agbaje M, Ajani FL, Talabi OA, Lazarus DD, Gallardo C, Thompson PN, Bastos AD. Risk factors for farm-level African swine fever infection in major pig-producing areas in Nigeria, 1997-2011. Prev Vet Med. 2012 Nov 1;107(1-2):65-75. Download in PDF.

Leblanc N, Cortey M, Fernandez Pinero J, Gallardo C, Masembe C, Okurut AR, Heath L, van Heerden J, Sánchez-Vizcaino JM, Ståhl K, Belák S. Development of a Suspension Microarray for the Genotyping of African Swine Fever Virus Targeting the SNPs in the C-Terminal End of the p72 Gene Region of the Genome. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012 Jul 8.Download in PDF.

Malogolovkin A, Yelsukova A, Gallardo C, Tsybanov S, Kolbasov D. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus isolates originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation between 2007 and 2011. Vet Microbiol. 2012 Aug 17;158(3-4):415-9. Download in PDF.

Mur L, Boadella M, Martínez-López B, Gallardo C, Gortazar C, Sánchez-Vizcaíno  JM. Monitoring of African swine fever in the wild boar population of the most recent endemic area of Spain.Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012 Dec;59(6):526-31.Download in PDF.

Okoth E, Gallardo C, Macharia JM, Omore A, Pelayo V, Bulimo DW, Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Mijele D, Bishop RP. Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya. Prev Vet Med. 2012 Dec 6. Download in PDF.


Argilaguet JM, Pérez-Martín E, Gallardo C, Salguero FJ, Borrego B, Lacasta A, Accensi F, Díaz I, Nofrarías M, Pujols J, Blanco E, Pérez-Filgueira M, Escribano JM, Rodríguez F. Enhancing DNA immunization by targeting ASFV antigens to SLA-II bearing cells. Vaccine. 2011 Jul 26;29(33):5379-85. Download in PDF.

Ballester M, Rodríguez-Cariño C, Pérez M, Gallardo C, Rodríguez JM, Salas ML, Rodriguez F. Disruption of nuclear organization during the initial phase of African swine fever virus infection. J Virol. 2011 Aug;85(16):8263-9. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C,Anchuelo R, Pelayo V, Poudevigne F, Leon T, Nzoussi J, Bishop R,  Pérez C, Soler A, Nieto R, Martín H, Arias M. African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX in domestic pigs, Congo, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;17(8):1556-8. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C., Ademun A.R., Nieto R.,  Nantima N., Arias M., Martín E., Pelayo V. and Bishop Richard P.  Genotyping of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates associated with disease outbreaks in Uganda in 2007. African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB). April 2011; 10 (17); pp. 3488-3497. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C,Okoth E, Pelayo V, Anchuelo R, Martín E, Simón A, Llorente A, Nieto R, Soler A, Martín R, Arias M, Bishop RP. African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and adult warthogs, respectively, at a single geographical site. J Gen Virol. 2011Feb;92(Pt 2):432-44.Download in PDF.

Giammarioli M, Gallardo C, Oggiano A, Iscaro C, Nieto R, Pellegrini C, Dei Giudici S, Arias M, De Mia GM. Genetic characterisation of African swine fever viruses from recent and historical outbreaks in Sardinia (1978-2009).Virus Genes. 2011 Jun;42(3):377-87.Download in PDF.

Tignon M, Gallardo C, Iscaro C, Hutet E, Van der Stede Y, Kolbasov D, De Mia GM, Le Potier MF, Bishop RP, Arias M, Koenen F. Development and inter-laboratory validation study of an improved new real-time PCR assay with internal control for detection and laboratory diagnosis of African swine fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2011 Dec;178(1-2):161-70.Download in PDF.

Ronish B, Hakhverdyan M, Ståhl K, Gallardo C, Fernandez-Pinero J, Belák S, Leblanc N, Wangh L. Design and verification of a highly reliable Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) assay for the detection of African swine fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2011 Mar;172(1-2):8-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.12.003. Epub 2010 Dec 15. Erratum in: J Virol Methods. 2011 May;173(2):403. Gallardo, C [added]; Fernandez-Pinero, J [added]..Download in PDF.


Ballester M, Galindo-Cardiel I, Gallardo C, Argilaguet JM, Segalés J, Rodríguez JM, Rodríguez F. Intranuclear detection of African swine fever virus DNA in several cell types from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues using a new in situ hybridisation protocol. J Virol Methods. 2010 Sep;168(1-2):38-43. Download in PDF.

de Villiers EP, Gallardo C, Arias M, da Silva M, Upton C, Martin R, Bishop RP. Phylogenomic analysis of 11 complete African swine fever virus genome sequences. Virology. 2010 Apr 25;400(1):128-36. Download in PDF.

Fasina FO, Shamaki D, Makinde AA, Lombin LH, Lazarus DD, Rufai SA, Adamu SS, Agom D, Pelayo V, Soler A, Simón A, Adedeji AJ, Yakubu MB, Mantip S, Benshak AJ, Okeke I, Anagor P, Mandeng DC, Akanbi BO, Ajibade AA, Faramade I, Kazeem MM, Enurah LU, Bishop R, Anchuelo R, Martin JH, Gallardo C. Surveillance for African swine fever in Nigeria, 2006-2009. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010 Aug 1;57(4):244-53. Download in PDF.

McKillen J, McMenamy M, Hjertner B, McNeilly F, Uttenthal A, Gallardo C, Adair B, Allan G. Sensitive detection of African swine fever virus using real-time PCR with a 5' conjugated minor groove binder probe.J Virol Methods. 2010 Sep;168(1-2):141-6. Download in PDF.


Gallardo C., Soler A., Martín E., Pelayo V, Simón A. and Arias M. Report on molecular characterization of African swine fever virus Azerbaijan isolates. FAO Empress 2009 Vol 33 pg 17-31. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C, Reis AL, Kalema-Zikusoka G, Malta J, Soler A, Blanco E, Parkhouse RM, Leitão A. Recombinant antigen targets for serodiagnosis of African swine fever. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Jul;16(7):1012-20. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C,Mwaengo DM, Macharia JM, Arias M, Taracha EA, Soler A, Okoth E, Martín E, Kasiti J, Bishop RP. Enhanced discrimination of African swine fever virus isolates through nucleotide sequencing of the p54, p72, and pB602L (CVR) genes.Virus Genes. 2009 Feb;38(1):85-95. Download in PDF.


Salguero FJ, Gil S, Revilla Y, Gallardo C, Arias M, Martins C. Cytokine mRNA expression and pathological findings in pigs inoculated with African swine fever virus (E-70) deleted on A238L. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008 Jul 15;124(1-2):107-19. Download in PDF.


Michaud V, Gil P, Kwiatek O, Prome S, Dixon L, Romero L, Le Potier MF, AriasM, Couacy-Hymann E, Roger F, Libeau G, Albina E. Long-term storage at tropical temperature of dried-blood filter papers for detection and genotyping of RNA and DNA viruses by direct PCR. J Virol Methods. 2007 Dec;146(1-2):257-65.Download in PDF.


Nix RJ, Gallardo C, Hutchings G, Blanco E, Dixon LK. Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions. Arch Virol. 2006 Dec;151(12):2475-94. Download in PDF.

Gallardo C,Blanco E, Rodríguez JM, Carrascosa AL, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of African swine fever virus protein pp62 expressed in insect cells. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Mar;44(3):950-6. Download in PDF.

Pérez-Filgueira DM, González-Camacho F, Gallardo C, Resino-Talaván P, Blanco E, Gómez-Casado E, Alonso C, Escribano JM. Optimization and validation of recombinant serological tests for African Swine Fever diagnosis based on detection of the p30 protein produced in Trichoplusia ni larvae. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Sep;44(9):3114-21. Download in PDF.


Agüero M, Fernández J, Romero LJ, Zamora MJ, Sánchez C, Belák S, Arias M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. A highly sensitive and specific gel-based multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous and differential diagnosis of African swine fever and Classical swine fever in clinical samples. Vet Res. 2004 Sep-Oct;35(5):551-63.Download in PDF.


Agüero M, Fernández J, Romero L, Sánchez Mascaraque C, Arias M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. Highly sensitive PCR assay for routine diagnosis of African swine fever virus in clinical samples.J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Sep;41(9):4431-4.Download in PDF